Basic Information on the Group and its Accounting Policies

Basic Information on the Group and its Accounting Policies

Basic information on the company

Digia is a Finnish software and service provider that helps leading organisations to develop services, manage operations and utilise information – at home and abroad. Qt provides a tool for software developers that allows the creation of desktop software, embedded software and mobile applications with universal compatibility, regardless of the operating system.

Our customer base consists of various players in industry, trade, logistics, the financial sector and the public sector. Our development is guided by the changing everyday lives of our customers.

Digia employs around one thousand experts in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Germany, Russia, China, South Korea and the United States. Digia is listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki exchange (DIG1V).

Our vision is to be the most highly recommended IT software and services company in Finland. We are also pursuing strong international growth in our Qt business. The Group’s parent company is Digia Plc. The parent company is domiciled in Helsinki and its registered office is at Valimotie 21, 00380 Helsinki.

Accounting policies

Basis of preparation

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in compliance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), observing the IAS and IFRS standards, as well as SIC and IFRIC interpretations valid on 31 December 2015.

Consolidation principles

The consolidated financial statements include the parent company, Digia Plc, and all 100% owned subsidiaries. Acquired subsidiaries are consolidated using the cost method, according to which the assets and liabilities of the acquired entity are measured at fair value at the time of acquisition, and the remaining difference between the acquisition price and the acquired shareholders’ equity constitutes goodwill. In accordance with the exemption permitted by IFRS 1, acquisitions prior to the IFRS transition date have not been adjusted to correspond to the IFRS principles. Their values remain unchanged from Finnish Accounting Standards. Subsidiaries acquired during the fiscal period are included in the consolidated financial statements as of the date of acquisition, while divested subsidiaries are included until the date of divestment. Intra-Group transactions, receivables, liabilities, unrealised margins and internal profit distribution are eliminated in the consolidated financial statements. The profit for the period is divided between the parent company shareholders and the minority. The minority interest is also presented as a separate item within shareholders’ equity.


As of 1 January 2015, the Digia Group has applied the following new and amended standards:

  • Amendments to IAS 19 Employee benefits – Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contributions (to be applied to financial periods beginning on or after 1 July 2014 ): The objective of the amendments is to simplify accounting when contributions from employees or third parties to defined benefit plans are required. The amendments are not expected to have an effect on Digia's consolidated financial statements.
  • Annual Improvements to IFRSs, collection of amendments 2011–2013 and 2010–2012 (to be applied to financial periods beginning on or after 1 July 2014): In the Annual Improvements procedure, all the minor and less urgent changes to the standards are gathered together and carried out once a year. The changes made in this procedure apply to four standards (2011–2013) and seven standards (2010–2012). The effects of the amendments vary depending on the standard but are not material.
  • IFRIC 21 Levies (to be applied to financial periods beginning on or after 1 July 2014; in the EU no later than at the beginning of a financial period beginning on or after 17 June 2014): The interpretation provides more detailed guidance on the recognition of levies. A liability for a levy must be recognised when the obligating event specified in legislation occurs. IFRIC 21 does not cover income taxes, fines and other penalties or payments falling within the scope of other IFRS standards. The interpretation had no material effect on Digia's consolidated financial statements.

The preparation of financial statements under IFRS means that Group management must necessarily make certain estimates and judgements concerning the application of the accounting principles. Information about such considerations made by the management when applying the corporate accounting principles with the greatest influence on the figures presented in the financial statements are explained under the item ‘Accounting policies requiring consideration by management and crucial factors of uncertainty associated with estimates’.

Segment reporting

Digia reports two business segments: Qt and Domestic. The Qt segment includes Digia's international Qt software business. The Domestic segments includes all other business operations in Finland and Sweden.

Foreign currency translation

Items referring to the earnings and financial position of the Group’s units are recognised in the currency that is the main currency of the unit’s primary operating environment (‘functional currency’). The consolidated financial statements are given in euros, which is the operating and presentation currency of the parent company.

Receivables and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies have been converted into euro at the exchange rate in effect on the balance sheet date. Gains and losses arising from foreign currency transactions are recognised through profit or loss. Foreign exchange gains and losses from operations are included in the corresponding items above operating profit.

The income statements of non-Finnish consolidated companies have been converted into euro at the weighted average exchange rate for the period, and their balance sheets have been converted at the exchange rate quoted on the balance sheet date. Translation differences arising from the application of the cost method are treated as items adjusting consolidated shareholders’ equity.


Tangible assets

Property, plant and equipment (PPE) are carried at cost less accumulated planned depreciation and impairment. Assets are depreciated over their estimated useful lives. Depreciation is not booked for land areas. Estimated useful lives are as follows:

Buildings and structures 25 years
Machinery and equipment 3–8 years
Leasehold improvements 3–5 years
   

The residual value and useful life of assets is reviewed on each balance sheet date and, if necessary, adjusted to reflect any changes in expected economic value.

Capital gains and losses on elimination and the transfer of tangible assets are included either in other operating income or expenses.

Government grants

Grants received as compensation for costs are recognised in the income statements at the same time as the expenses related to the target of the grant are recognised as expenses. Grants of this kind are presented under other operating income.

Intangible assets

Goodwill

Goodwill corresponds to the proportion of the acquisition cost of an entity acquired between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 that exceeds the Group’s share of the fair value of the entity’s net assets on the date of acquisition.

Goodwill is defined according to IFRS 3, i.e. as the difference between points 1 and 2 below:

1. Sum of the following items:

  • the fair value of the consideration paid at the time of acquisition
  • the amount of any non-controlling interest in the object of acquisition
  • the fair value of any previously held non-controlling interest in the object of acquisition, in the case of a phased business combination

2. The net sum of the acquisition date assets acquired and liabilities assumed.


The goodwill for business combinations prior to 2004 corresponds to goodwill in accordance with previous accounting standards that has been used as the deemed cost. A portion of the goodwill of acquired entities is allocated to customer relationships or products originating in acquisitions and recognised in intangible assets. The portions of acquisition cost recognised in intangible assets are amortised over their useful life.

No regular amortisation is booked on goodwill but it is tested annually for impairment. For this purpose, goodwill is allocated to cash generating units. Goodwill is recognised at the original cost from which the impairment is deducted. Any adjustments of acquisition cost are booked no later than 12 months after the date of acquisition.

Research and development costs

Research costs are recognised as expenses in the income statement. Development costs arising from the design of new products are capitalised as intangible assets in the statement of financial position, until the product is ready for commercial utilisation and future economic benefit is expected from the product. Depreciation begins once the product is ready for commercial utilisation. The useful life of capitalised development expenses is 2 to 5 years, during which time the capitalised assets will be recognised as expenses by straight-line depreciation.

Other intangible assets

Patents, trademarks and licences with a limited useful life are booked in the balance sheet and recognised as expenses in the income statement by straight-line depreciation over their useful life. Amortisation is not booked on intangible assets with an unlimited useful life but they are tested annually for impairment.

Leases

Leases on property, plant and equipment in which the Group bears a significant part of the risks and benefits characteristic of ownership are categorised as finance leases. A finance lease is recognised in the balance sheet at the fair value of the leased asset at the start of the lease period or at a lower current value of minimum lease payments. Assets acquired on finance leases are depreciated over the asset’s useful life or the lease period, whichever is shorter. Lease obligations are included in interest-bearing debt. Leases in which the risks and benefits characteristic of ownership remain with the lessor are treated as operating leases. Leases payable on the basis of other leases are recognised as expenses in the income statement in equal instalments over the lease period.

Financing assets and liabilities

Financing assets are divided into receivables and liabilities, either as held-to-maturity, held-for-trading, or available-for-sale. Loans are included under non-current and current liabilities. Interest expenses are recognised as expenses in the period during which they have arisen. Loan arrangement costs are periodised during the loan period using the effective interest method.


Accounts receivable and other receivables

Accounts receivable and other receivables are measured at nominal value. An impairment of accounts receivable is established when there is evidence based on a case-by-case risk assessment that the Group will not be able to collect all amounts due according to the original terms of receivables.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and withdrawable bank deposits and other short-term investments. Accounts with a credit facility are treated as short-term loans under current liabilities.

Amortisation

On each balance sheet date, the Group estimates whether there is evidence that the value of an asset may have been impaired. If there is evidence of impairment, the amount recoverable from the asset is estimated. In addition, the recoverable amount is estimated annually on the following assets regardless of whether there is an indication of impairment or not: goodwill, and intangible assets with an unlimited useful life. The need for impairment is reviewed at the level of cash generating units, which refers to the lowest level of unit that is mainly independent of other units and whose cash flows can be separated from other cash flows. If the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount, an impairment loss is recognised in the income statement. An impairment loss recognised for goodwill will not be reversed under any circumstances.

Employee benefits

Pension liabilities

The Group’s pension schemes are arranged through a pension insurance company. The pension schemes are mainly defined contribution plans, and payments are recognised in the income statement during the period to which the payment applies. The Finnish Employees' Pensions Act (TyEL) pension scheme was treated as a defined contribution plan in 2014 and 2015.

Share-based payments

The Group has incentive schemes where payments are made either in equity instruments or in cash. The benefits granted through these arrangements are measured at fair value on the date of their being granted and recognised as expenses in the income statement evenly during the vesting period. Correspondingly, in arrangements where the payment is made in cash, the liability and the change in its fair value is recognised as a liability on an accrual basis. The impact of these arrangements on the financial results is shown in the income statements under the cost of employee benefits.

Provisions

A provision is recognised when the Group has a legal or factual obligation based on previous events, the realisation of a payment obligation is probable and the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated.


A restructuring provision is recognised when the Group has prepared a detailed restructuring plan, begun its implementation and disclosed the matter. The provision is based on expected actual costs, such as agreed compensation for termination of employment.

The Group recognises a provision for onerous contracts when the expected benefits to be derived from a contract are less than the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under the contract.

A guarantee provision is recognised once a product or service subject to guarantee terms has been sold and the amount of potential guarantee costs can be estimated with sufficient accuracy.

Shares, dividends and shareholders’ equity

Dividends proposed by the Board of Directors will not be deducted from distributable shareholders’ equity before the Board’s approval has been received. Immediate costs relating to the acquisition of Digia Plc’s own shares are recognised as deductions in shareholders’ equity.

Earnings per share

Earnings per share are calculated by dividing the period’s earnings after tax belonging to the parent company’s shareholders by the weighted average of shares outstanding during the fiscal period, excluding own shares acquired by Digia Plc. Diluted earnings per share are calculated assuming that all subscription rights and options have been exercised by the beginning of the next fiscal year. In addition to the weighted average of shares outstanding, the denominator also includes shares received from subscription rights and options assumed to have been exercised. The subscription rights and options assumed to have been exercised will not be taken into account in earnings per share if their actual price exceeds their average price during the fiscal year.

Income taxes

Taxes recognised in the income statement include taxes based on taxable income for the financial period, adjustments to taxes for previous periods, as well as changes in deferred taxes. Tax based on taxable income for the period is calculated using the corporate income tax rate applicable in each country. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for temporary differences between the taxable values and book values of asset and liability items. The biggest temporary differences arise from the depreciation of fixed assets and revaluation at fair value in connection with acquisitions. Deferred taxes are determined on the basis of the tax rate enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred tax receivables are recognised up to the probable amount of taxable income in the future, against which the temporary difference can be utilised.


Revenue recognition

Work carried out by people is recognised monthly in accordance with progress. Long-term projects with a fixed price are recognised on the basis of their percentage of completion once the outcome of the project can be reliably estimated. The percentage of completion is determined as the proportion of costs arising from work performed for the project up to the date of review in the total estimated project costs. If estimates of the project change, the recognised sales and profit/margin are amended in the period during which the change becomes known and can be estimated for the first time. Any loss expected from a project is recognised as an expense immediately after the matter has been noted. Licensing income is recognised in accordance with the factual substance of the agreement. Income recognition requires a binding contract and complete delivery of the product. Depending on the type of the licence, income is recognised based on the time of delivery. Licence maintenance fees are allocated over the agreement period.

Accounting policies requiring consideration by management and crucial factors of uncertainty associated with estimates

Estimates and assumptions regarding the future have to be made during the preparation of the financial statements, and the outcome may differ from the estimates and assumptions. Furthermore, the application of accounting policies requires consideration. These estimates and assumptions are based on historical experience and other justifiable assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances and that serve as a foundation for evaluating the items included in the financial statements. The estimates mainly concern the following items:

Impairment testing

The Group carries out annual impairment testing of goodwill and intangible assets with an unlimited useful life and evaluates any indications of impairment as described above in the accounting policies. Recoverable amounts from cash generating units are determined as calculations based on value in use. The preparation of these calculations requires the use of estimates.

Revenue recognition

As described in the revenue recognition policies, the revenue and costs of a long-term project are recognised as income and expenses, on the basis of percentage of completion once the outcome of the project can be reliably estimated. Recognition associated with the degree of completion is based on estimates of expected income and expenses of the project and reliable measurement and estimation of project progress. If estimates of the project’s outcome change, the recognised sales and profit/margin are amended in the period during which the change becomes known and can be estimated for the first time. Any loss expected from a project is immediately recognised as an expense.

Financial risks

Financial risk management consists, for instance, of the planning and monitoring of solvency of liquid assets, the management of investments, receivables and liabilities denominated in a foreign currency, and the management of interest rate risks on non-current interest-bearing liabilities.


In accordance with the company’s investment policy, cash and cash equivalents are invested only in low-risk short rate funds and bank deposits. The Group’s policy defines creditworthiness requirements for customers in order to minimise the amount of credit losses. A sufficient provision was made for uncertain accounts receivable at the end of the fiscal period.

The most significant currency risks relating to accounts receivable or accounts payable are managed by means of forward foreign exchange contracts, when necessary. At the end of the fiscal year, the company did not have any such forward contract in force. Interest rate trends are monitored systematically in different bodies within the company, and possible interest rate risks hedges are made with the appropriate instruments. At the end of the fiscal year, the company had no such hedging instruments in force.

New and amended standards and interpretations to be applied in future financial periods

The Digia Group has not yet applied the following new or revised standards and interpretations published by the IASB. The Group will introduce each standard and interpretation as of its effective date or, if the effective date is some other date than the first day of the fiscal period, as of the beginning of the fiscal period following the effective date.

* = The regulation has not been approved for application within the EU on 31 December 2015.

  • Amendment to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements: Disclosure Initiative (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016). The objective of the amendments is to encourage entities to exercise their judgement in presenting their financial reports. The amendments provide guidance on issues such as the application of the concept of materiality and the use of discretion in determining the order of the notes to the financial statements. The amendments are not expected to have a material effect on Digia's consolidated financial statements.
  • Amendments to IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 38 Intangible Assets – Clarification of Acceptable Methods of Depreciation and Amortisation (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016): The amendments provide clarification to IAS 16 and IAS 38. Revenue-based depreciation methods are not applicable to property, plant and equipment, and only rarely to intangible assets. The amendments have no effect on Digia's consolidated financial statements.
  • Amendments to IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements, IFRS 12 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities and IAS 28 Investments in Associates – Investment Entities: Applying the Consolidation Exception * (Effective from financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2016 with earlier application permitted): Narrow-scope amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 28 clarify the accounting requirements for investment entities. The amendments also provide for reliefs in certain conditions, which lower the expenses arising from the application of the standard. The amendments have no effect on Digia's consolidated financial statements.
  • Amendments to IAS 27 Separate Financial Statements – Equity Method in Separate Financial Statements (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016): After the amendment, entities are able to account for investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures at cost in separate financial statements. The amendments have no effect on Digia's consolidated financial statements.
  • Annual Improvements to IFRSs, collection of amendments 2012–2014 (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016): In the Annual Improvements procedure, all the minor and less urgent changes to the standards are gathered together and carried out once a year. Changes apply to four standards. The effects of the amendments vary depending on the standard but are not material.
  • New IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers* (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018): IFRS 15 provides a comprehensive framework for determining if, how much and when sales revenue can be recognised as income. IFRS 15 will replace the existing income recognition guidelines such as IAS 18 Revenue, IAS 11 Construction Contracts and IFRIC 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes. The core principle of IFRS 15 is that an entity will recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Group is assessing the effects of IFRS 15.
  • New IFRS 9 Financial Instruments* (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018): The standard will entirely replace the current IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. IFRS 9 includes revised guidance on the recognition and measurement of financial instruments. It also incorporates a new expected loss impairment model to be used for specifying impairment recognised on financial assets. The general provisions regarding hedge accounting have also been revised. The provisions included in IAS 39 concerning the recognition and derecognition of financial instruments remain unchanged. The Group is assessing the effects of the standard.

Other new or amended standards and interpretations have no effect on the consolidated financial statements.